SpreadsheetGear Features

The SpreadsheetGear family of products is made up of powerful and flexible Microsoft Excel compatible spreadsheet components and includes SpreadsheetGear 2023 for .NET Framework, SpreadsheetGear Engine for .NET and SpreadsheetGear for Windows.

SpreadsheetGear enables ASP.NET, ASP.NET Core, Windows Forms, WPF, iOS, Android, Linux, macOS and UWP developers to easily take advantage of scalable Excel Reporting, dynamic dashboards from Excel charts and ranges, powerful spreadsheet controls, comprehensive Excel compatible charting, the fastest and most complete Excel compatible calculations and more.

Which SpreadsheetGear product is right for you?

SpreadsheetGear 2023 for .NET Framework comes with assemblies built for .NET Framework 3.5 and .NET 4.6.2 while SpreadsheetGear Engine for .NET requires a platform which supports .NET 6 or .NET Standard 2.0 or later. SpreadsheetGear for Windows requires .NET 6 or later. Although the feature set across products are very similar, there are some differences...


Feature Finder

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General Features

Calculation Engine

  • Fastest and most complete Excel compatible calculation engine available (significantly faster than Excel in many cases).
  • Multi-threaded calculations efficiently utilize today's multi-core CPUs.
  • Interruptible background calculation enables responsive applications.
  • 449 Excel compatible financial, date, time, text, lookup, math, trigonometry, statistical, engineering, database, information, logical and web functions (see list here).
    Samples
    Related Samples:
  • All types, operators, defined names, data tables and arrays.
  • Support for 64K worksheets and unlimited workbooks in formulas.
  • Worksheet specific defined names and global defined names.
    Samples
    Related Samples:
  • Built-In Document Properties and Custom Document Properties.
    Samples
  • Custom functions, minimal recalc, iteration, precision as displayed and more.
    Samples
    Related Samples:
  • Copy formulas between cells, worksheets, workbooks and workbook sets with full support for reference fixups.
  • Insert and delete worksheets, rows, columns and cells with full support for reference fixups.
  • Cut, copy and paste with full support for smart reference fixups across multiple worksheets and workbooks.
  • Special care was taken with numerical stability.

Workbook Features

Worksheet Features

Printing Features

Charting Features

Formatting Features

Spreadsheet Control Features

  • SpreadsheetGear Explorer Sample Solutions for Windows provide source code which demonstrates commonly used features and APIs.
    Samples
    Related Samples:
    • Windows Forms and WPF WorkbookView spreadsheet controls provide viewing, navigation and editing support which is familiar to Excel users.
    • In-cell editing and optional FormulaBar control provide the ability to enter and edit cell values and formulas, including support for pointing at cell references in formulas across worksheets and workbooks.
    • Smart data entry with optional data validation as well as automatic recognition and formatting of dates, times, percentages, currency, scientific notation and fractions will be familiar to Excel users.
    • Conditional formatting enables font colors, font styles, background colors, borders as well as other graphical features such icon sets, data bars, color scales and more, which are based on simple comparison operators, complex formulas or more advanced rules.
    • Grouping and outlining which allows users to easily expand and collapse the displayed level of detail.
    • WorkbookDesigner provides an MDI Windows application which may be used from within Visual Studio 2012, Visual Studio 2013, Visual Studio 2015, Visual Studio 2017, Visual Studio 2019 and Visual Studio 2022 at Design Time and by your applications at run time.
    • WorkbookExplorer provides the ability to manipulate workbooks, worksheets and defined names as well as their properties.
    • RangeExplorer provides extensive modeless formatting of the currently selected range with support for number formats, alignment, fonts, borders, colors, patterns, gradients, protection options, hyperlinks, conditional formats and data validation.
    • ChartExplorer provides basic modeless modification and formatting of the selected chart with support for chart types and data sources, legend options, primary and secondary axes options and various series options.
    • Modeless find and replace dialog with support for find, find all, replace and replace all.
    • Support for an unlimited number of workbooks associated with each WorkbookView.
    • DisplayReference and DisplayReferenceName properties allow complete control over what appears for each sheet tab, including the ability to make multiple workbooks appear as one workbook and the ability to specify dynamically changing ranges using worksheet functions such as OFFSET().
    • Cut, copy, paste and paste special support including rich data and formatting interchange with Excel and full formula fixups.
    • Frozen rows and columns, split panes, sheet tab colors, zoom, multi-level undo/redo, autofit rows and columns, goto, clear, printing, print preview, interruptible background calculation, real time workbook updates and more.
    • CommandManager provides the ability to add custom undoable commands as well as the ability to override the behavior of common commands.
    • Full integration with Visual Studio 2005, Visual Studio 2008, Visual Studio 2010, Visual Studio 2012, Visual Studio 2015, Visual Studio 2017 and Visual Studio 2019 including the ability to use the WorkbookDesigner, WorkbookExplorer, RangeExplorer, ChartExplorer and ShapeExplorer at design time and at runtime.

    Supported File Formats

    • XLSX - Open XML Workbook
    • XLSM - Open XML Macro Enabled Workbook
    • XLS - Excel 97-2003 Workbook
    • CSV - Comma Delimited Text
    • TXT - Tab Delimited Text

    Microsoft .NET Features

    • Easy to use API which will be familiar to Excel VBA and COM developers while taking advantage of .NET's expressiveness.
    • Supports 32- and 64- bit versions of the Microsoft .NET Framework NET 3.5 .NET 4.0, .NET 4.5.x, .NET 4.6.x, .NET 4.7.x, .NET 4.8, as well as .NET 6 and any platform that supports .NET Standard 2.0.
    • Supports 32- and 64- bit versions of Windows 8.1, Windows 10, Windows Server 2012 (including R2), Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2019 and Windows Server 2022.
    • Visual Studio 2012, Visual Studio 2013, Visual Studio 2015, Visual Studio 2017, Visual Studio 2019 and Visual Studio 2022 integration, including IntelliSense and Dynamic Help.
    • The security of 100 percent safe managed code which does not require FullTrust.
    • Hassle-free deployment with strong-named assemblies as well as no license keys, registry entries or configuration issues.
    • No dependency on Microsoft Excel, which is not supported in a server environment.
     

     
    'f(x)' Watermark Image

    Supported Excel-Compatible Functions

    449 of Excel's financial, date, time, text, lookup, math, trigonometry, statistical, engineering, database, information, logical and web functions. Click here for a list of unsupported functions.

    Database and List Management Functions
    DAVERAGE
    Indicates the average of the values that meet the specified criteria.
    DCOUNT
    Counts the number of cells containing numbers that meet the specified criteria.
    DCOUNTA
    Counts nonblank cells containing numbers or text that meet the specified criteria.
    DGET
    Returns a single value that meets the specified criteria.
    DMAX
    Extracts the highest value that meets the specified criteria.
    DMIN
    Extracts the lowest value that meets the specified criteria.
    DPRODUCT
    Returns the product of the values that meet the specified criteria.
    DSTDEV
    Estimates the standard deviation of a population, based on a sample of selected entries from the database.
    DSTDEVP
    Returns the calculation of the standard deviation of a population, based on the sum of the whole population.
    DSUM
    Returns the total of the values that meet the specified criteria.
    DVAR
    Estimates the variance of a sample population based on the values that meet the specified criteria.
    DVARP
    Returns the calculation of the true variance of an entire population based on the values that meet the specified criteria.
    Date and Time Functions
    DATE
    Returns the serial number that represents a date.
    DATEDIF
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the difference of two dates in years, months or days.
    DATEVALUE
    Converts date text to a DATEVALUE serial number.
    DAY
    Returns the corresponding day of the month serial number or date text from 1 to 31.
    DAYS
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the number of days between the two specified dates.
    DAYS360
    Returns the number of days between two set dates based on a 360-day year.
    EDATE
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the value or serial number of the date which is a certain number of months before or after a user-specified date.
    EOMONTH
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the date at the end of the month a specified number of months before or after a specified date.
    HOUR
    Returns the hour as a serial number integer between 0 and 23.
    ISOWEEKNUM
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the ISO week number for a specified date.
    MINUTE
    Returns the serial number that corresponds to the minute.
    MONTH
    Returns the corresponding serial number of the month of a date between 1 and 12.
    NETWORKDAYS
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the number of working days between two dates. Excludes weekends and specified holidays.
    NETWORKDAYS.INTL
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days.
    NOW
    Returns the current date and time in the form of a serial number.
    SECOND
    Returns the seconds portion of a serial time value.
    TIME
    Returns the decimal value of a given time.
    TIMEVALUE
    Returns the decimal number for a given time.
    TODAY
    Returns the current date as a serial number.
    WEEKDAY
    Returns the corresponding day of the week as a serial number.
    WEEKNUM
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the number where a week falls numerically within a year.
    WORKDAY
    2009 (V5)
    Returns a date that is a specified number of working days before or after a given date.
    WORKDAY.INTL
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days.
    YEAR
    Returns the corresponding year as a serial number in the form of an integer.
    YEARFRAC
    2009 (V5)
    Calculates the fraction of the year between two dates.
    Engineering Functions
    BESSELI
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the BESSEL function in modified form for imaginary arguments.
    BESSELJ
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the actual BESSEL function.
    BESSELK
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the BESSEL function in modified form for imaginary arguments.
    BESSELY
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the BESSEL function, also known as the Weber or Neumann function.
    BIN2DEC
    2009 (V5)
    Converts a binary number to decimal form.
    BIN2HEX
    2009 (V5)
    Converts a binary number to a hexadecimal.
    BIN2OCT
    2009 (V5)
    Converts a binary number to octal form.
    BITAND
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the bitwise AND of the two specified numbers.
    BITLSHIFT
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the specified number shifted left by the specified amount.
    BITOR
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the bitwise OR of the two specified numbers.
    BITRSHIFT
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the specified number shifted right by the specified amount.
    BITXOR
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the bitwise XOR of the two specified numbers.
    COMPLEX
    2009 (V5)
    Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number of the form x + yi or x + yj.
    CONVERT
    2009 (V5)
    Interprets data from one measurement system to another.
    DEC2BIN
    2009 (V5)
    Converts decimal numbers to binary form.
    DEC2HEX
    2009 (V5)
    Converts decimal numbers to hexadecimal.
    DEC2OCT
    2009 (V5)
    Converts decimal numbers to octal.
    DELTA
    2009 (V5)
    Tests whether numbers or values are equal with a number result. Returns "0" for unequal, "1" for equal.
    ERF
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the integrated error function between a lower and upper limit.
    ERF.PRECISE
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the error function
    ERFC
    2009 (V5)
    Returns a complementary ERF function integrated between 'x' and infinity.
    ERFC.PRECISE
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity
    GESTEP
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the value 1 if the number is greater than or equal to a specified step value, otherwise it returns 0.
    HEX2BIN
    2009 (V5)
    Converts hexadecimal numbers to binary form.
    HEX2DEC
    2009 (V5)
    Converts hexadecimal numbers to decimal form.
    HEX2OCT
    2009 (V5)
    Converts hexadecimal numbers to octal form.
    IMABS
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format.
    IMAGINARY
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the coefficient of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format.
    IMARGUMENT
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the theta argument - an angle expressed in radians.
    IMCONJUGATE
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format.
    IMCOS
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the cosine of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format.
    IMCOSH
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the hyperbolic cosine of the specified complex number.
    IMCOT
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the cotangent of the specified complex number.
    IMCSC
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the cosecant of the specified complex number.
    IMCSCH
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of the specified complex number.
    IMDIV
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the quotient of complex numbers in x+yi or x+yj text format.
    IMEXP
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the exponential of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format.
    IMLN
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format.
    IMLOG10
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the common logarithm (Base 10) of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format.
    IMLOG2
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the common logarithm (Base 2) of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format.
    IMPOWER
    2009 (V5)
    Returns a complex number raised to a power in x+yi or x+yj text format.
    IMPRODUCT
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the product from 2 to 29 complex numbers in x+yi or x+yj text format.
    IMREAL
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the real coefficient of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format.
    IMSEC
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the secant of the specified complex number.
    IMSECH
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the hyperbolic secant of the specified complex number.
    IMSIN
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the sine of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format.
    IMSINH
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the hyperbolic sine of the specified complex number.
    IMSQRT
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the square root of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format.
    IMSUB
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the difference of two complex numbers in x+yi or x+yj text format.
    IMSUM
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the sum of 2 to 29 complex numbers in x+yi or x+yj text format.
    IMTAN
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the tangent of the specified complex number.
    OCT2BIN
    2009 (V5)
    Converts an octal number to binary form.
    OCT2DEC
    2009 (V5)
    Converts an octal number to decimal form.
    OCT2HEX
    2009 (V5)
    Converts an octal number to hexadecimal form.
    Financial Functions
    ACCRINT
    2009 (V5)
    Returns accrued interest for securities that pay periodic interest.
    ACCRINTM
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the accrued interest for securities that pay interest at the maturity date.
    AMORDEGRC
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the depreciation for each accounting period within the formula.
    AMORLINC
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the depreciation for each accounting period.
    COUPDAYBS
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the number of days from the beginning of the period to the coupon-period settlement date.
    COUPDAYS
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the number of days in the period that contains the coupon period settlement date.
    COUPDAYSNC
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the number of days between the settlement date to the next coupon date.
    COUPNCD
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date.
    COUPNUM
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the total number of coupons to be paid between the settlement and maturity dates, rounded up to the nearest whole coupon.
    COUPPCD
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the coupon date previous to the settlement date.
    CUMIPMT
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the cumulative interest on a loan between start and stop dates.
    CUMPRINC
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the cumulative principal amount between start and stop dates on a loan or mortgage.
    DB
    Returns the asset depreciation for a period using the fixed declining balance method.
    DDB
    Returns the asset depreciation for a period using the double-declining balance method or another specified method.
    DISC
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the security discount rate.
    DOLLARDE
    2009 (V5)
    Converts a fraction dollar price into a decimal dollar price.
    DOLLARFR
    2009 (V5)
    Converts a decimal dollar price into a fraction dollar price.
    DURATION
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the Macauley duration for an assumed par value.
    EFFECT
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the effective interest rate annually. This is based on the nominal annual interest rate and the number of compounding periods per year.
    FV
    Returns the future value of an investment that makes payments as a lump sum or as a series of equal periodic payments.
    FVSCHEDULE
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the future value of a principal amount after applying several, or a series of compound interest rates.
    INTRATE
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the interest rate of a security that is fully invested.
    IPMT
    Returns the interest for a period of time based on an investment with periodic constant payments and a constant interest rate.
    IRR
    Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows represented by numbers in the form of values.
    ISPMT
    Calculates the interest paid during a defined period of an investment.
    MDURATION
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the modified duration of a security with a par value assumed to be $100.
    MIRR
    Returns a modified internal rate of return for several periodic cash flows.
    NOMINAL
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the nominal annual interest rate given an effective rate and the total number of compounding periods for the year.
    NPER
    Returns the total number of periods for an investment. This is based on a periodic constant payment and a constant interest rate.
    NPV
    Calculates the net present value of an investment from the discount rate and several future payments and income.
    ODDFPRICE
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the value of a security based on a per $100 face value and an odd (short or long) first period.
    ODDFYIELD
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the security yield with an odd first period.
    ODDLPRICE
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the per $100 face value of a security having an odd last coupon period.
    ODDLYIELD
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the security yield that has an odd last period.
    PDURATION
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the number of periods for the specified present value to reach the specified future value given the specified interest rate.
    PMT
    Calculates the loan payment for a loan based on constant payments and constant interest rates.
    PPMT
    Returns the principal payment for a period of an investment based on periodic constant payments and a constant interest rate.
    PRICE
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the value of a security based on price per $100 face value and periodic interest payments.
    PRICEDISC
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the value of a discounted security based on a price per $100 face value.
    PRICEMAT
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the value of a security that pays interest at maturity and price per $100 face value.
    PV
    Returns the present value based on an investment.
    RATE
    Returns per period the interest of an annuity.
    RECEIVED
    2009 (V5)
    Based on a fully invested security, returns the amount received at maturity.
    RRI
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the effective interest rate required for the specified present value to reach the specified future value in the specified number of periods.
    SLN
    Returns the straight-line depreciation on an asset.
    SYD
    Based on a specified period, SYD returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset.
    TBILLEQ
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the bond equivalent yield for a treasury bill.
    TBILLPRICE
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the price per $100 face value for a treasury bill.
    TBILLYIELD
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the yield of a treasury bill.
    VDB
    For a period you specify, returns the depreciation of an asset.
    XIRR
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic.
    XNPV
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic.
    YIELD
    2009 (V5)
    Based on a yield that pays periodic interest, returns the yield of the security.
    YIELDDISC
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the annual yield for a discounted security.
    YIELDMAT
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the annual yield based on a security that pays interest at a maturity.
    Information Functions
    CELL
    2012 (V7)
    Returns information about a cell's location, formatting, or contents in the upper-left cell in a reference.
    ERROR.TYPE
    Returns the corresponding number value associated with an error type in Microsoft Excel.
    INFO
    Returns operating environment information.
    ISBLANK
    Returns TRUE if the cell is empty, FALSE if it contains data.
    ISERR
    Returns TRUE if value contains any error value except #N/A, FALSE if it does not.
    ISERROR
    Returns TRUE if value contains any error value (including #N/A), FALSE if it does not.
    ISEVEN
    2009 (V5)
    Returns TRUE if value is an even number, FALSE if it is not.
    ISFORMULA
    2017 (V8)
    Returns TRUE if the specified cell contains a formula.
    ISLOGICAL
    Returns TRUE if value is a logical value, FALSE if it is not.
    ISNA
    Returns TRUE if value is #N/A, FALSE if it is not.
    ISNONTEXT
    Returns TRUE if value is not text, FALSE if it is.
    ISNUMBER
    Returns TRUE if value is a number, FALSE if it is not.
    ISODD
    2009 (V5)
    Returns TRUE if value is an odd number, FALSE if it is not.
    ISREF
    Returns TRUE if value is a reference, FALSE if it is not.
    ISTEXT
    Returns TRUE if value is text, FALSE if it is not.
    N
    Returns a value converted to a number.
    NA
    An alternative representation of the error value #N/A.
    SHEET
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the one based index of the specified sheet, or the index of the sheet containing the formula if no sheet is specified.
    SHEETS
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the number of sheets in a 3d cell reference, or the number of sheets in the workbook containing the formula if no reference is specified.
    TYPE
    Determines the type of value in a cell.
    Logical Functions
    AND
    Returns TRUE if all the arguments are TRUE in the formula, and FALSE if any one argument is FALSE.
    FALSE
    Returns the value FALSE. May be typed directly into the cell as "FALSE".
    IF
    Returns a value if one condition is TRUE and returns another value if the condition is FALSE.
    IFERROR
    2012 (V7)
    Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula
    IFNA
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the specified first argument unless it is #N/A, in which case it returns the specified second argument.
    NOT
    Returns the reverse value of its arguments; TRUE becomes FALSE and FALSE becomes TRUE.
    OR
    Returns FALSE if all arguments are FALSE, and TRUE if at least one argument is TRUE.
    TRUE
    Returns the value TRUE. May be typed directly into the cell as "TRUE".
    XOR
    2017 (V8)
    Returns TRUE if the specified arguments contain an odd number of TRUE values, or FALSE if the values contain an even number of TRUE values.
    Lookup and Reference Functions
    ADDRESS
    Given specified row and column numbers, creates a cell address as text.
    AREAS
    Returns the number of areas based on a reference.
    CHOOSE
    Returns an item from a list of values..
    COLUMN
    Returns the column number(s) based on a given reference.
    COLUMNS
    Returns the number of columns based on an array or reference.
    HLOOKUP
    Searches for a specified value in an array or a table's top row.
    HYPERLINK
    Creates a shortcut to jump to a document stored on a network server.
    INDEX
    Returns the value of an element selected by the row number and column letter indexes.
    INDIRECT
    Returns the contents of a cell using its reference.
    LOOKUP
    Looks in the first row or column of a range or array, and returns the specified value from the same position in the last row or column of the range or array.
    MATCH
    Returns the relative position of an item in an array that matches a specified value in a specified order, or the position of an item.
    OFFSET
    Returns a reference to a range that is a specific number of rows and columns from a cell or range of cells.
    ROW
    Returns the row number based on a reference.
    ROWS
    Returns the number of rows in a reference or array.
    TRANSPOSE
    Returns a horizontal range of cells as vertical or vice versa.
    VLOOKUP
    Searches for a value in the leftmost column of a table and returns a value from the same row in a column number that you specify.
    Math and Trigonometry Functions
    ABS
    Returns the absolute value of a number.
    ACOS
    Returns the arccosine of a number in radians in the range 0 to pi.
    ACOSH
    Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number.
    ACOT
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the inverse cotangent of the specified number.
    ACOTH
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the inverse hyperbolic cotangent of the specified number.
    AGGREGATE
    2017 (V8)
    Returns an aggregate in a list or database
    ARABIC
    2017 (V8)
    Converts the specified Roman numeral to a number.
    ASIN
    Returns the arcsine of a number in radians in the range -pi/2 to pi/2.
    ASINH
    Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number.
    ATAN
    Returns the arctangent of a number in radians in the range -pi/2 to pi/2
    ATAN2
    Returns the four-quadrant arctangent of the specified x- and y- coordinates in radians between -pi and pi excluding -pi. A positive result represents a counterclockwise angle from the x-axis, a negative result represents a clockwise angle.
    ATANH
    Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number.
    BASE
    2017 (V8)
    Converts the specified number to text with the specified radix and minimum length.
    CEILING
    Returns a number rounded up, away from zero, to the nearest multiple of significance.
    CEILING.MATH
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the specified number rounded up using the specified significance and mode.
    CEILING.PRECISE
    2012 (V7)
    Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number if rounded up.
    COMBIN
    Returns the number of combinations for a given number of items.
    COMBINA
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the number of combinations with the specified number of items.
    COS
    Returns the cosine of the given angle.
    COSH
    Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number.
    COT
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the cotangent of the specified angle.
    COTH
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of the specified angle.
    CSC
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the cosecant of the specified angle.
    CSCH
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of the specified angle.
    DECIMAL
    2017 (V8)
    Converts the specified text to a number using the specified radix.
    DEGREES
    Converts radians into degrees.
    EVEN
    Returns a number rounded up to the next even integer for positive integers and rounded down to the next even integer for negative numbers.
    EXP
    Returns e (2.71828182845804) raised to the power of a specified number.
    FACT
    Returns the factorial of a number.
    FACTDOUBLE
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the double factorial of a number.
    FLOOR
    Returns a number rounded down, toward zero, to the nearest multiple of significance.
    FLOOR.MATH
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the specified number rounded down using the specified significance and mode.
    FLOOR.PRECISE
    2012 (V7)
    Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up.
    GCD
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the greatest common divisor of two or more integers.
    INT
    Rounds a number down to the nearest integer.
    ISO.CEILING
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the specified number rounded up using the specified significance.
    LCM
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the least common multiple of integers.
    LN
    Returns the natural (base e) logarithm of a number.
    LOG
    Returns the logarithm of a number of the base you specify.
    LOG10
    Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number.
    MDETERM
    Returns the matrix determinant of an array.
    MINVERSE
    Returns the inverse matrix for the matrix stored in an array.
    MMULT
    Returns the matrix product of two arrays. The result is an array with the same number of rows as array1 and the same number of columns as array2.
    MOD
    Returns the remainder of a division operation (modulus).
    MROUND
    2009 (V5)
    Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple. Rounds up if the remainder after dividing the number by the multiple is at least half the value of the multiple.
    MULTINOMIAL
    Returns the ratio of the factorial of the sum of the values to the product of the factorials.
    MUNIT
    2017 (V8)
    Returns an identity matrix with the specified n by n dimension.
    ODD
    Returns a number rounded up away from zero to the nearest odd integer.
    PI
    Returns the approximate number 3.14159265358979, the mathematical constant pi, accurate to 15 digits.
    POWER
    Returns the result of a specified number raised to a specified power.
    PRODUCT
    Multiplies all the numbers given as arguments and returns the product.
    QUOTIENT
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the integer portion of a division.
    RADIANS
    Converts degrees to radians.
    RAND
    Returns an evenly distributed random number greater than or equal to 0 and less than 1. A new random number is returned every time the worksheet is calculated.
    RANDBETWEEN
    2009 (V5)
    Returns a random integer between the integers you specify. A new random number is returned every time the worksheet is calculated.
    ROMAN
    Converts an Arabic numeral to Roman, as text.
    ROUND
    Round a number to a specified number of digits.
    ROUNDDOWN
    Rounds a number down, towards zero.
    ROUNDUP
    Rounds a number up, away from zero.
    SEC
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the secant of the specified angle.
    SECH
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the hyperbolic secant of the specified angle.
    SERIESSUM
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the sum of a power series.
    SIGN
    Determines the sign of a number. Returns 1 if the value is positive, 0 if the value is 0, and -1 if the value is negative.
    SIN
    Returns the sine of a given angle.
    SINH
    Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number.
    SQRT
    Returns a positive square root.
    SQRTPI
    2009 (V5)
    Returns the square root of (NUMBER * Pi)
    SUBTOTAL
    Returns a subtotal in a list or database.
    SUM
    Adds all the numbers in a range of cells.
    SUMIF
    Adds the cells specified by a certain criteria.
    SUMIFS
    2012 (V7)
    Adds the cells in a range that meet multiple criteria
    SUMPRODUCT
    Multiplies corresponding components in the given arrays, and returns the sum of those products.
    SUMSQ
    Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments.
    SUMX2MY2
    Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays.
    SUMX2PY2
    Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays.
    SUMXMY2
    Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays.
    TAN
    Returns the tangent of the given angle.
    TANH
    Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number.
    TRUNC
    Truncates a number to an integer by removing the fractional part of a number.
    Pre-Excel 2010 Statistical Functions
    BETADIST
    Returns the cumulative beta probability density function.
    BETAINV
    Returns the inverse of the cumulative beta probability density function.
    BINOMDIST
    Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability.
    CHIDIST
    Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared (X^2) distribution; the area in the right tail under the chi-squared distribution curve.
    CHIINV
    Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared (X^2) distribution.
    CHITEST
    Returns the test for independence of the characteristics in a table.
    CONFIDENCE
    Returns the confidence interval for a population mean.
    COVAR
    Returns the covariance, the average of products of deviations, for each data point pair.
    EXPONDIST
    Returns the exponential distribution.
    FDIST
    Returns the F probability distribution.
    FINV
    Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution.
    FTEST
    Returns the result of an F-test.
    GAMMADIST
    Returns the gamma distribution.
    GAMMAINV
    Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution.
    LOGINV
    Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function of x, where ln(x) is normally distributed with parameters mean and standard deviation.
    LOGNORMDIST
    Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution of x, where ln(x) is normally distributed with parameters mean and standard deviation.
    MODE
    Returns the most frequently occurring, or repetitive, number in an array or range of data.
    NEGBINOMDIST
    Returns the negative binomial distribution.
    NORMDIST
    Returns the normal cumulative distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation.
    NORMINV
    Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation.
    NORMSDIST
    Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution function.
    PERCENTILE
    Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range.
    PERCENTRANK
    Returns the rank of a value in a data set set as a percentage of the data set.
    POISSON
    Returns the Poisson distribution.
    QUARTILE
    Returns the quartile of a data set.
    RANK
    Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers.
    STDEV
    Estimates standard deviation based on a sample.
    STDEVP
    Estimates standard deviation based on a sample assuming that the arguments represent the total population.
    TDIST
    Returns the percentage points (probability) for the student t-distribution, where a numeric value (x) is a calculated value of t for which the percentage points are to be computed.
    TINV
    Returns the t-value of the Student's t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom.
    TTEST
    The probability associated with t-test.
    VAR
    Returns an estimate for the variance of a population based on a sample data set.
    VARP
    Calculates variance based on the entire population.
    WEIBULL
    Returns the Weibull distribution.
    ZTEST
    Returns the two-tailed P-value of a z-test.
    Statistical Functions
    AVEDEV
    Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean.
    AVERAGE
    Returns the average of its arguments.
    AVERAGEA
    Returns the average of the values in its list of arguments including text and logical values.
    AVERAGEIF
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria
    AVERAGEIFS
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria
    BETA.DIST
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the beta cumulative distribution function
    BETA.INV
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution
    BINOM.DIST
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability
    BINOM.DIST.RANGE
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the probability of the specified trial using a binomial distribution.
    BINOM.INV
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value
    CHISQ.DIST
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the chi-squared distribution
    CHISQ.DIST.RT
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution
    CHISQ.INV
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the inverse of the left-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution
    CHISQ.INV.RT
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the inverse of the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution
    CHISQ.TEST
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the test for independence.
    CONFIDENCE.NORM
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the confidence interval for a population mean.
    CONFIDENCE.T
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student's t distribution
    CORREL
    Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets.
    COUNT
    Counts the number of cells that contain numbers (including dates and formulas that evaluate to numbers) within the list of arguments.
    COUNTA
    Counts the number of cells that are not empty.
    COUNTBLANK
    Counts the empty cells in a specified range.
    COUNTIF
    Counts the number of cells in a range that meet a given criteria.
    COUNTIFS
    2012 (V7)
    Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria
    COVARIANCE.P
    2012 (V7)
    Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations
    COVARIANCE.S
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets
    CRITBINOM
    Returns the minimum number yields a binomial distribution less than or equal to the specified criteria
    DEVSQ
    Returns the sum of the squares of deviations of a data set from their sample mean.
    EXPON.DIST
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the exponential distribution.
    F.DIST
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the F probability distribution.
    F.DIST.RT
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the (right-tailed) F probability distribution (degree of diversity) for two data sets
    F.INV
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution
    F.INV.RT
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the inverse of the (right-tailed) F probability distribution
    F.TEST
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the result of an F-test.
    FISHER
    Returns the Fisher transformation at x.
    FISHERINV
    Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation at y.
    FORECAST
    Calculates or predicts a future value by using existing values.
    FREQUENCY
    Calculates how often values occur within a range of values and then returns a vertical array of numbers.
    GAMMA
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the gamma function result for the specified number.
    GAMMA.DIST
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the gamma distribution.
    GAMMA.INV
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution.
    GAMMALN
    Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function.
    GAMMALN.PRECISE
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function.
    GAUSS
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the probability that a number will fall between the mean and the specified standard deviation in a normal distribution.
    GEOMEAN
    Returns the geometric mean of an array or range of positive data.
    GROWTH
    Calculates predicted exponential growth by using existing data.
    HARMEAN
    Returns the harmonic mean of a data set.
    HYPGEOM.DIST
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the hypergeometric distribution.
    HYPGEOMDIST
    Returns the hypergeometric distribution.
    INTERCEPT
    Calculates the point at which a line will intersect the y-axis by using existing x and y values.
    KURT
    Returns the Kurtosis of a data set.
    LARGE
    Returns the k-th largest value in a data set.
    LINEST
    Calculates a straight line that best fits your data using the least squares method.
    LOGEST
    Calculates an exponential curve that fits your data and returns an array of values that describes the curve.
    LOGNORM.DIST
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the lognormal distribution, of x, where ln(x) is normally distributed with mean and standard deviation.
    LOGNORM.INV
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution.
    MAX
    Returns the largest value in a set of values.
    MAXA
    Returns the largest value in a set of values including text and logical values.
    MEDIAN
    Returns the median of the given numbers.
    MIN
    Returns the smallest value in a set of values.
    MINA
    Returns the smallest value in a set of values including text and logical values.
    MODE.MULT
    2012 (V7)
    Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data.
    MODE.SNGL
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the most common value in a data set.
    NEGBINOM.DIST
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the negative binomial distribution.
    NORM.DIST
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the normal cumulative distribution.
    NORM.INV
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution.
    NORM.S.DIST
    2012 (V7)
    Return the standard normal cumulative distribution.
    NORM.S.INV
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution.
    NORMSINV
    Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution function.
    PEARSON
    Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, r, a dimensionless index that ranges from -1.0 to 1.0 inclusive and reflects the extent of a linear relationship between two data sets.
    PERCENTILE.EXC
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive
    PERCENTILE.INC
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range.
    PERCENTRANK.EXC
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set
    PERCENTRANK.INC
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set
    PERMUT
    Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects that can be selected from a range of numbers.
    PERMUTATIONA
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the number of permutations given the specified total number of items and the specified number of items chosen for each permutation.
    PHI
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the value of the probability density function of the specified number for the standard normal distribution.
    POISSON.DIST
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the Poisson distribution.
    PROB
    Returns the probability that values in a range are between two specified limits.
    QUARTILE.EXC
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive.
    QUARTILE.INC
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the quartile of a data set.
    RANK.AVG
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers.
    RANK.EQ
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers.
    RSQ
    Returns the r^2 value of a linear regression line.
    SKEW
    Returns the skew of a distribution.
    SKEW.P
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the population skewness of the specified distribution.
    SLOPE
    Returns the slope of a regression line through data points in KNOWN_Y'S and KNOWN_X'S.
    SMALL
    Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set.
    STANDARDIZE
    Returns a normalized value from a distribution characterized by MEAN and STANDARD_DEV.
    STDEV.P
    2012 (V7)
    Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population
    STDEV.S
    2012 (V7)
    Estimates standard deviation based on a sample.
    STDEVA
    Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. Includes text and logical values.
    STDEVPA
    Estimates standard deviation based on a sample assuming that the arguments represent the total population. Includes text and logical values.
    STEYX
    Returns the standard error of the predicted y value for each x in the regression.
    T.DIST
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the percentage points (probability) for the student t-distribution.
    T.DIST.2T
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the percentage points (probability) for the student t-distribution.
    T.DIST.RT
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the Student's t-distribution.
    T.INV
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the t-value of the Student's t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom.
    T.INV.2T
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution.
    T.TEST
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test.
    TREND
    Returns the y-values along a linear trendline that best fits the values in a data set.
    TRIMMEAN
    Returns the mean of the interior of a data set.
    VAR.P
    2012 (V7)
    Calculates variance based on the entire population
    VAR.S
    2012 (V7)
    Estimates variance based on a sample.
    VARA
    Returns an estimate for the variance of a population based on a sample data set and may include text or logical values.
    VARPA
    Calculates variance based on the entire population and may include text or logical values.
    WIEBULL.DIST
    Returns the Weibull distribution.
    Z.TEST
    2012 (V7)
    Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test.
    Text Functions
    CHAR
    Returns the character specified by a number.
    CLEAN
    Removes all nonprintable characters from text.
    CODE
    Returns a numeric code from the first character in a text string. The opposite of the CHAR function.
    CONCATENATE
    Joins several text strings into one text string.
    DOLLAR
    Converts a number to text using Currency format, with the decimals rounded to the specified place.
    EXACT
    Compares two text strings and returns TRUE if they are exactly the same, and FALSE otherwise.
    FIND
    Locates one text string within another text string, and returns the number of the starting position of FIND_TEXT from the leftmost character of WITHIN_TEXT.
    FINDB
    Returns the position of specified text within another specified text string based on the number of bytes each character uses from the first character of WITHIN_TEXT.
    FIXED
    Rounds a number to a specified number of decimals, formats the number in decimal format using a period and commas, and returns the result as text.
    LEFT
    Returns the first character(s) in a text string.
    LEFTB
    Returns the first character(s) in a text string based on a specified number of bytes
    LEN
    Returns the number of characters in a text string.
    LENB
    Returns the number of characters in a text string expressed in bytes.
    LOWER
    Converts all letters in a text string to lowercase.
    MID
    Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify.
    MIDB
    Returns a group of characters based on a specified number of bytes from a text string starting at the position you specify.
    NUMBERVALUE
    2017 (V8)
    Converts the specified text to a number using the specified decimal separator and thousands separator.
    PROPER
    Capitalizes the first letter of each word in a text string or sentence.
    REPLACE
    Replaces part of a text string with a different text string based on the number of characters you specify.
    REPLACEB
    Replaces part of a text string with a different text string based on the number of characters you specify in terms of bytes.
    REPT
    Repeats specified text a given number of times.
    RIGHT
    Returns the last character(s) in a text string.
    RIGHTB
    Returns the last character(s) in a text string based on a specified number of bytes.
    SEARCH
    Returns the number of the character at which a specific character or text string is first found, reading from left to right.
    SEARCHB
    Returns the number of the character at which a specific character or text string is first found in bytes, reading from left to right.
    SUBSTITUTE
    Substitutes NEW_TEXT for OLD_TEXT in a string.
    T
    Returns the text referred to by a value.
    TEXT
    Converts a value to text in a specific number format.
    TRIM
    Removes all spaces from text except single spaces between words.
    UNICHAR
    2017 (V8)
    Convert the specified UTF-32 code point to text.
    UNICODE
    2017 (V8)
    Convert the first character in the specified text to a UTF-32 code point.
    UPPER
    Converts text to uppercase.
    USDOLLAR
    Converts a number to text using US Dollar format, with the decimals rounded to the specified place.
    VALUE
    Converts a text string that represents a number to a number.
    Web Functions
    ENCODEURL
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the specified string as an encoded URL.
    FILTERXML
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the selected node(s) from the specified xml and xpath expression.
    WEBSERVICE
    2017 (V8)
    Returns the text result of an HTTP request from the specified URL.